Business Finance – Operations Management
In Unit 10, we will apply our understanding of the oneway ANOVA to the SPSS data set.
Proper Reporting of the OneWay ANOVA
Reporting a oneway ANOVA in proper APA style requires an understanding of several elements. To provide
context for the F test, provide a means plot, as well as the means and standard deviations for each level of a
given factor. The following elements are included in reporting the F test:
• The statistical notation for a oneway ANOVA ( F).
• The degrees of freedom.
• The F value.
• The probability value ( p).
• The effect size.
If the omnibus F test is significant, follow with a discussion of posthoc tests. Consider the following example
from Warner (2013, p. 254):
The overall F for the oneway ANOVA was statistically significant, F(3, 24) = 11.94, p < .001. This
corresponded to an effect size of η2 = .60; that is, about 60% of the variance in anxiety scores was
predictable from the type of stress intervention. This is a large effect. . . .
In addition, all possible pairwise comparisons were made using the Tukey HSD test. Based on this
test. . . .
F, Degrees of Freedom, and F Value
The statistical notation for a oneway ANOVA is F, and following it is the degrees of freedom for this statistical
test, such as (3, 24) reported above. Unlike correlation or a t test, there are two degrees of freedom reported
for a oneway ANOVA. The first reported df is the betweengroups df, or dfbetween, which is the number of
groups (or levels) minus one ( k − 1). In the example above, the factor consists of k = 4 levels (4 − 1 = 3). The
second reported df is the withingroups df, or dfwithin, which is the sample size minus the number of groups or
levels ( N − k). In the example above, N = 28, so 28 − 4 = 24. The F value is calculated as a ratio of mean
squares, which are both positive. Therefore, any nonzero F value is always positive.
Probability Value
Appendix C (pp.1058–1061) of the Warner text provides critical values of F for rejecting the null hypothesis. In
the example above, with (3, 24) degrees of freedom and alpha level set to .05 (onetailed versus twotailed is
not relevant to ANOVA), the table indicates a critical value of ± 3.01 to reject the null hypothesis. The obtained
F value above is 11.94, which exceeds the critical value required to reject the null hypothesis. SPSS determined
the exact p value to be .000, which is reported as p < .001. (Remember that SPSS only calculates a p value out
to three decimal places.) This p value is less than .05, which indicates that the null hypothesis should be rejected
for the alternative hypothesis—that is, at least one of the four group means is significantly different from the
other group means.
Unit 10 – OneWay ANOVA: Application
INTRODUCTION
Effect Size
The effect size for a oneway ANOVA is eta squared (η2). The effect size is not provided in SPSS output. It is
calculated by hand by dividing SSbetween by SStotal from the SPSS ANOVA output. In the example above,
SSbetween = 182.107 and SStotal = 304.107, which means that 182.107 ÷ 304.107 = .60. The effect size is
interpreted using Table 5.2 in the Warner text (p. 208).
PostHoc Tests
When the omnibus F is significant, it does not indicate exactly which pairwise comparisons are significant. A
Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD) test is one of many posthoc tests used. The SPSS output for the
Tukey's HSD indicates which pairwise comparisons are statistically significant, and this information can be
reported in narrative form (that is, without p values or other specific statistical notation) as shown in the fourth
paragraph of the "Results" section in the Warner text (p. 254).
The Warner text provides a "Results" example at the end of each chapter for all statistics studied in this course.
You are encouraged to review these examples and follow their structure when writing up Section 4,
"Interpretation," of the DAA Template.
Reference
Warner, R. M. (2013). Applied statistics: From bivariate through multivariate techniques (2nd ed.). Thousand
Oaks, CA: Sage.
OBJECTIVES
To successfully complete this learning unit, you will be expected to:
1. Interpret the oneway ANOVA output.
2. Apply the appropriate SPSS procedures to check assumptions and calculate the oneway ANOVA to
generate relevant output.
3. Analyze the assumptions of the oneway ANOVA.
4. Articulate a research question, null hypothesis, alternative hypothesis, and alpha level.
[u10s1] Unit 10 Study 1 Readings
Use your IBM SPSS Statistics Step by Step text to complete the following:
• Read Chapter 12, "The OneWay ANOVA Procedure." This reading addresses the following topics:
◦ Introduction to oneway ANOVA.
◦ SPSS commands.
◦ Posthoc tests in SPSS.
◦ Planned contrasts in SPSS.
◦ Reporting and interpreting SPSS output.
[u10a1] Unit 10 Assignment 1 – OneWay ANOVA
As with your previous assignments, you will complete this assignment with the DAA Template. Links to
additional resources are available in the Resources area.
Reminder: The format of this SPSS assignment should be narrative with supporting statistical output
(table and graphs) integrated into the text in the appropriate places (not all at the end of the document).
You will analyze the following variables in the grades.sav data set:
• section
• quiz3
Step 1: Write Section 1 of the DAA.
• Provide the context of the grades.sav data set.
• Include a definition of the specified variables (predictor, outcome) and corresponding scales of
measurement.
• Specify the sample size of the data set.
Step 2: Write Section 2 of the DAA.
• Analyze the assumptions of the oneway ANOVA.
• Paste the SPSS histogram output for quiz3 and discuss your visual interpretations.
• Paste SPSS descriptives output showing skewness and kurtosis values for quiz3 and interpret them.
• Paste SPSS output for the ShapiroWilk test of quiz3 and interpret it.
• Report the results of the Levene test and interpret it.
• Summarize whether or not the assumptions of the oneway ANOVA are met.
Step 3: Write Section 3 of the DAA.
• Specify a research question related to the oneway ANOVA.
• Articulate the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis.
• Specify the alpha level.
Step 4: Write Section 4 of the DAA.
• Begin by pasting SPSS output of the means plot and providing an interpretation.
• Also report the means and standard deviations of quiz3 for each level of the section variable.
• Next, paste the SPSS ANOVA output and report the results of the F test, including:
◦ Degrees of freedom.
◦ F value.
◦ p value.
◦ Calculated effect size.
◦ Interpretation of the effect size.
• Finally, if the omnibus F is significant, provide the SPSS posthoc (Tukey HSD) output.
◦ Interpret the posthoc tests.
Step 5: Write Section 5 of the DAA.
• Discuss the conclusions of the oneway ANOVA as it relates to the research question.
• Conclude with an analysis of the strengths and limitations of oneway ANOVA.
Submit your DAA Template as an attached Word document in the assignment area.
Resources
OneWay ANOVA Scoring Guide.
DAA Template.
SPSS Data Analysis Report Guidelines.
IBM SPSS StepbyStep Guide: OneWay ANOVA.
Copy/Export Output Instructions.
APA Style and Format.
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