Why were labor unions created and what has the government done to address the issues that led to the creation of unions?

Short Answer.  7 of the following 9 questions 

1)  Labor unions have played a major role in changing the working landscape of the United States labor environment. Why were labor unions created and what has the government done to address the issues that led to the creation of unions?

2)  We have experienced discrimination in our work force. What is meant by a glass ceiling? Throughout the history of the U.S. there has been a steady stream of immigrants entering our work force. What is the problems that are associated with undocumented workers and are they just (why or why not)?

3)  What are indifference curves and how do they relate to a budget line? Draw a graph showing 3 indifference curves and a budget line. Why is one indifference curve tangent to the budget line? What happens if the price of one good changes?

4)  The demographics of the work force has changed. Discuss the impact of women joining the workforce (changes in education, maternity and traditional role of woman from stay home parent to two income households). What are the positives and negatives of undocumented workers on the economy?

5)  What do excludable and rival mean in the context of describing the four types of goods we discussed in class? Give examples of each type of good and show how they are rival, nonrival, excludable or nonexcludable. 

6)  Describe what a positive and negative externality is. Give examples of each type. What are the private and external costs of production? Show the effect on a supply and demand curve of a negative externality.

7)  What does the term “Asymmetric Information” mean? What is a moral hazard and what are the two groups involved? Give an example. What is meant by adverse selection? Who is involved? Give an example.

8)  What kind of products are common resources and what specific problems arise because of th=e characteristics of these products? How is this problem fixed?

9)  Why is a Pigovian tax different from a traditional tax? What effect does each have on the marketplace? What do economists prefer when trying to curb an externality, a tax or a regulation? Explain and use graphs.

Essay- answer 3 of the following 4 questions 

1  We have learned that equilibrium in a market is reached where the supply and demand curves intersect. However, in the case of the labor market I lied, what are the reasons why the labor market is not in equilibrium? Use graphs to help in explaining your answer.

2  Describe the different forms of business structure (sole proprietor, general and limited partnerships and private and public corporations). Include the positives and negatives of each form of business. 

3  The supply and demand curves for labor can shift. Use at least two different examples of positive and negative shifts of the demand and supply curves and explain why these shifts occur.

4  The government sees a cement company polluting the river. They want to internalize the externality of the cleanup costs to get the water safe for recreational use. They have two choices to accomplish their goal. They can either put a tax on a certain level of pollution or create a regulation that limits the amount of pollution allowed. If they use a regulation should they allow for pollution permits? Explain the benefits and detriments of each form of control. What would you recommend and why? 


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